Monday, August 24, 2020
The United Kingdom's Aging Population In the same way as other nations across Europe, the United Kingdoms populace is maturing. In spite of the fact that the quantity of old individuals isn't ascending as fast as certain nations, for example, Italy or Japan, the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s 2001 statistics demonstrated that just because, there were a larger number of individuals matured 65 and more established than under 16 living in the nation. Somewhere in the range of 1984 and 2009, the level of the populace matured 65 rose from 15% to 16% which is an expansion of 1.7 million individuals. Over same period, the extent of those under 16 tumbled from 21% to 19%. By 2040, it is evaluated that there will be 15 million individuals matured 65 or over, contrasted with 8.7 million under 16.Within this more established age associate, the most quick ascent has been made by the Ã¢â¬Ëoldest oldÃ¢â¬â¢ who are matured 85. Their numbers have expanded from 660,000 out of 1984 to 1.4 million in 2009.By 2034, it is anticipated that there will be 3.5 million individuals in the older age go, representing 5% of the UK populace. About 90,000 of these will be more than 100 years of age Ã¢â¬ multiple times the 2009 figure. For what reason is the Population Aging? These are the purposes behind a maturing populace: expanded future and Increased fruitfulness rate, Future As medication propels and more seasoned populaces are more beneficial, they will live more and along these lines the populace overall will age. Richness Rate In the UK, the richness rate has been beneath substitution levels since the mid 1970s. The normal fruitfulness is by and by 1.94 however there are provincial contrasts inside this, with ScotlandÃ¢â¬â¢s ripeness rate as of now 1.77 contrasted and 2.04 in Northern Ireland. There is additionally a move to higher mean pregnancy ages Ã¢â¬ ladies conceiving an offspring in 2009 were on normal one year more established (29.4) than those in 1999 (28.4). There a great deal of elements that have added to this change. These incorporate improved accessibility and viability of contraception; the increasing expenses of living; expanding female investment in the work showcase; changing social mentalities; and the ascent of independence. Effects on Society Work and Pensions Longer retirement periods may prompt an expanded degree of beneficiary neediness, particularly among the individuals who have not had the option to pay into word related plans. Ladies are especially powerless against this. They have a higher future than men and can lose their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s annuity support in the event that he kicks the bucket first. They are likewise bound to have removed time from the work market to bring up youngsters or care for other people, which means they might not have spared enough for their retirement. In light of this, the UK government as of late declared designs to expel the fixed retirement age implying that businesses can no longer power individuals to resign once they arrive at 65. They have likewise declared designs to expand the retirement age for ladies from 60 to 65 by 2018. It will at that point be raised to 66 for the two men ladies by 2020. Bosses are additionally being urged to utilize more established laborers and expert activities are being set up to help more seasoned individuals in coming back to work. Social insurance Positive Impacts It is likewise noticed that sound retirees can give care to their grandkids and bound to be associated with network exercises. They are progressively disposed to help expressions of the human experience by going to shows, theaters and exhibitions and a few examinations show that as we get more established, our fulfillment with life increments. Furthermore, people group are probably going to get more secure as more established individuals are measurably more averse to carry out violations.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Atmosphere adjustment has gotten a subject of extreme open treatment in ongoing mature ages. Researchers, specialists pioneers, lawmakers, controllers, concerns, including insurance agencies, speculators, examiners and the masses at enormous have communicated elevated association in clime change. Global understandings, and region and nearby Torahs and statutes in the Australia reference worries about the impacts of nursery gas spreads on our condition, and worldwide endeavors to go to the worries on a planetary balance continueA ( Bacchus 2004 ) . Because of these clime changes the earth security act was presented to regulate against seting contamination into the air and H2O. These ecological security Acts of the Apostless other than controls how waste is put away, gathered, moved and treated. These implied that if the worry is discovered fouling the earth, the specialists can distribute mulcts and different controls ( Bennett 2005 ) . The major ecological statutes that have been sanctioned in Australia incorporate The National Pollutant Inventory ( NPI ) the National Greenhouse Energy Reporting act ( NGER ) and the Carbon Tax. The central expectation of this paper is to gauge the potential impacts of the presentation of the natural rule law using the free-market and star administrative assault to mandate. The paper centers around the bookkeeping side comparable to these statutes. There is other than the feeling of the creator sing whether he supports such mandates Ã¢â¬ . The use free-showcase assault to mandate implies the market without mediation by authoritiess, other than for the authorization of agreements and possession rights. A free-advertise assault is one in which all business sectors are unregulated by any gatherings other than the members, and specialists plays a generic function.2.0 Evaluate the potential impacts of the introduction of the natural resolution law using the free-market and master admi nistrative assault to ordinance.Once government activity is considered important to go to an ecological activity, strategy shapers have a figure of choices available to them to follow up on contamination degrees. In make up one's disapproving of which assault to actualize, arrangement shapers must be aware of limitations and limitations of each assault thus toing explicit ecological employments. It is of import to represent how political and data limitations, flawed rivalry, or previous market distortions cooperate with arranged strategy alternatives ( Bennett, M 2005 ) . The introduction of National Pollutant Inventory has lead to financial effectiveness. It gives the network, business and specialists with free data about substance spreads in Australia. It has radiation estimations for 93 harmful substances and the start and area of these spreads ( Gibbons 2012 ) . The socially ideal degree is dictated by cut bringing down radiations until the advantage of slaking one more unit of contamination that is the fringy suspension advantage estimated as a decline in hurt is equivalent to the expense of slaking one additional unit that is the fringy suspension cost. In the least complex case, when every defiler picks the degree at which to inhale blending to this assurance guideline that is produce at a degree at which the fringy suspension advantage is equivalent to the fringy suspension cost, a proficient aggregative level of spreads is accomplished when the expense of slaking one more unit of contamination is equivalent over all defilers. Some other level of radiations would follow in an abatement in net advantages ( Bennett 2005 ) . National contamination stock rundown approach has other than lead to innovative rule. A building or structure rule, commands the particular control engineerings or creation systems that a single contamination starting must use to run into the radiations measure. This kind of standard compels works conduct by ordering how a starting must run into the rule, independent of whether such an activity is cost-productive. Innovation standards might be curiously utile in occurrences where the expenses of radiations managing are high however discovering whether an impossible to miss building or creation system has been placed in topographic point to run into a basis is similarly simple ( Janek 2012 ) . Notwithstanding, since these sorts of standards specify the suspension building required to chop down spreads, beginnings do non hold an incitement to place in more cost solid strategies for suspension or to look into new and propelled suspension plans or creation systems that are non allowed by mandate. The introduction of natural administrative get together in Australia lead to open introduction based measure. A presentation based model necessitates that defilers run into a source-level transmissions measure, however permits a defiler to take among accessible strategies to follow with the standard. Now and again, the accessible techniques are compelled by additional gauges determined in a law. Execution based measures that are designing based do non specify an impossible to miss building, however rather observe what is workable for accessible and ease building to achieve when set uping a bound on spreads. In the occurrence of a presentation based standard, the level of flexibleness a start has in run intoing the measure relies upon whether the model indicates a radiation degree or spread rate transmissions per unit of finished result or info. A standard that indicates a transmission degree permits a starting to take to actualize a proper designing, change its information blend, or chop down finished result to run into the measure. A radiation rate, on the different manus, might be increasingly prohibitive relying upon how it is characterized. The flexibleness of execution based rules urges houses to acquaint with the degree that they permit houses to examine less expensive approaches to run into the model ; by the by, they all things considered do non gracefully affectations for houses to chop down contamination past what is required to make congruity. For radiations that fall underneath the total permitted under the model, the house faces a zero fringy suspension cost since the house is as of now in similarity It other than prompts be effectivity. The proficiency of an approach choice varies from its cost-adequacy. An approach is cost-productive in the event that it meets a given end at any rate cost, yet cost effectivity does non grasp a rating of whether that end has been set appropriately to augment cultural open help. Every productive arrangement are cost-proficient, yet it is non needfully evident that all cost-effective approaches are proficient. An approach is viewed as cost-productive when fringy suspension costs are equivalent over all defilers. At the end of the day, for any level of whole suspension, every defiler has a similar expense for their last unit decreased. Numerous ecological laws in the Australia are regulating in nature and are as often as possible alluded to as order and-control laws. A regulating law can be characterized as a strategy that recommends how much contamination a single start or works is permitted to inhale and additionally what kinds of control hardware it must use to run into such requests. Such a measure is as often as possible characterized in footings of a source-level transmissions rate. Regardless of the introduction of conceivably more cost solid techniques for balancing radiations, this sort of mandate is still typically utilized and is once in a while legally required. It is about ever accessible as a Ã¢â¬Å" catcher Ã¢â¬ if different assaults do non achieve wanted contamination limits. Since a regularizing basis is ordinarily characterized in footings of a radiations rate, it does non straight order the aggregative transmission degree. In such occurrences, aggregative spreads will rely upon the figure of d efilers and the finished result of each defiler.3.0 Market based attackMarket based assault make an incitement for the private area to coordinate contamination suspension into creation or ingestion conclusions and to present in such a way as to constantly look for the least beyond all doubt won strategy for suspension. Market-situated assaults can contrast from progressively customary regulative techniques in footings of monetary productivity or cost-adequacy and the dispersion of advantages and expenses ( Dagwell 2007 ) . Since advertise based assaults do non command that every defiler run into a given radiations standard, they normally permit houses more flexibleness than increasingly customary statutes and gain by the heterogeneousness of suspension costs across defilers to chop down aggregative contamination quickly. Natural monetary specialists all things considered kindness advertise based strategies since they will in general be least beyond a reasonable doubt won, they place lower data load on the controller, and they give incitements to mechanical progresss. The introduction of authoritative get together prompts peak and product framework. In a top and-exchange framework the specialists sets the level of aggregative spreads, radiation recompenses are disseminated to defilers and a market is set up in which remittances might be purchased or sold. The money related estimation of radiation stipends is permitted to change. Since various defilers cause diverse private suspension expenses to order spreads, they are happy to pay various wholes for remittances. Along these lines, a top and-exchange framework permits defilers who face high fringy suspension expenses to purchase stipends from defilers with low fringy suspension costs, then again of put ining costly contamination control gear or using all the more truly won sources of info. Top and-exchange frameworks other than vary from order and-control statutes in that they expect to confine the aggregative radiation degree over a congruity period rather than set up a spreads rate. On the off chance that the top is set appropriately, so the harmony fiscal estimation of remittances, in principle, modifies with the goal that it rises to the fringy outer amendss from a unit of contamination. This equivalency infers that any outwardness related with spreads is
Saturday, July 18, 2020
How I Lost My Love of Reading and Found Myself Again I had to drive my love of reading far away in order to find myself again. Im no stranger to reading slumps, but Im grateful for my current pause from reading. My slump isnt so bad right nowâ"only going on since January after end-of-the-year burnout to meet my reading challengeâ"and Ive definitely suffered longer ruts, like the Great Year-Long Reading Slump of 2015. But this time, not feeling jazzed about books has been an eye-opening reckoning with my existence and purpose as an artist and creator. (Yeah, that epic!) It wasnt until this year, when I lost my love of reading yet again, that I realized I had found comparably satisfying parts of myself that I had buried under books and jeopardized my ability to tap into my creative side. My reading slump? It saved my artists soul. art: the luna bar of my soul Books are core to my identity. Stories, narratives, books, and tales, have filled my life and been my raison dÃªtre as far back as I can remember. Dealing with depression and social anxiety at an early age made me retreat into books. Living down the block from our towns public library gave me limitless opportunities to explore the world of books. And my father, an English teacher, brought literature into my home. As a teen, I was very open to exploring different arts. I acted in plays. I painted for hours after school. I drew a comic for the student newspaper. I sang in chorus and played alto saxophone in band. I was introduced to obscure art movies and the Criterion Collection through Fine Films Club. I flirted with the idea of going to culinary school. I knitted scarves and crocheted washcloths. And of course, I wrote: poems, mostly, but also short stories and essays. It might seem unfocused at fist glanceâ"typical overachiever, scattered attentionâ"but in retrospect, it was one big, homogenous creative explosion when I was open to art in every sense, both consuming art and crafting some of it myself. Books were surely a passion of mine, yet in my mind they were all part of the same fuel that fed my artistically hungry soul. I was famished. Art fed me. But if you found yourself in that story, then you know what comes next. You cant do everything in college, even if you try. If I could have actually majored in all the things I declared at one point or anotherâ"Classics, Philosophy, American Studies, German, History, and moreâ"it still wouldnt have satisfied me. In the endâ"inevitablyâ"I settled on English. Lucky for me, my schools English Department was an incredibly supportive, intellectually challenging hub that helped me focus on literature and never quite look back. Following graduation, I thought about other careers, but I always fell back on something involving books, reading, and writing. my big, bookish existential crisis Then: 2014. After beginning library grad school, book blogging, and book reviewing in the same year, I entered the dreaded year-long book slump in 2015. By this point, my DNA was so entirely woven into books that any slump resonated deep inside like the aching vibration of a cello string pulled taut but never released. Books were no longer my rush-hour escape, they were my life, professionally. The longer I went without finishing a book made me more and more anxious. My bipolar disorder made it so much worseâ"depression sunk me so far down I couldnt love anything, especially books, and mania drove insatiable, all-nighter binge-reading that left me burned out. But the existential crisis bothered me most snuck up when I couldnt sleep. What if I wasnt a reader, after all? What if I couldnt be a writer? Did I really have what it took to bring it and compete on this level as a reader, blogger, and aspiring writer? Maybe a bookish writing life doesnt seem as outwardly intense as some professions, it does require a certain rigor, and an undying, unwavering love for reading. I didnt always have that, and that made me doubt myself and my purpose. from the page to the stage: literature = art After I overdid it on reading at the end of 2017, I entered 2018 in a calmer state. One grey weekday afternoon, I decided what I needed to do most that empty day was go see a movieâ"perks of being a freelancerâ"and felt a renewed love for cinema and film. For years, Id been avoiding the movies after a series of panic attacks in the theater pushed me away from my former passion. From there, I brought out my art box again and started painting, mixed media and illustration. I sketched. I brainstormed a comic. I went to museums. I struck up an interest in fashion and beauty and taking each day as an opportunity to inhabit a new woman, a new character, just like I was on stage again. I started to craft more, going beyond my limited knowledge of knitting scarves and exploring sewing. My neglected books were repurposed in organization and interior design experiments. And most of all, I developed recipes for my food blog, seeing each time I stepped into the kitchen as a chance to use ever y bit of creativity to improvise something new in a vivid sensory experience. Writing a recipe was like writing a novel. The void in my life that has come with the reading slump has been filled by an intense love for art in all its forms like an echo in my soul. While Im not reading at the rate I hoped this year, at least not yet, I have felt more connected to the books I have read. A greater sense of concentration rather than scattering my attention among several and giving into the pressure I put upon myself to read as much as possible. Even more encouraging is Ive felt myself engage with reading on a deeper level. Im finally starting to read a book and appreciate at it as a piece of art again, not just another digit on my reading challenge tally. What I watch on the movie screen also informs my reading. Re-watching Fantastic Mr. Fox plunged me back into reading Roald Dahl and other authors of childrens literature who inspired me to begin my MFA program in writing for children and young adults. Watching Donnie Darko (2001) and Office Space (1999) made me revisit books that were published around t he turn of the millennium. All that time in the kitchen made me reach for my cookbooks again and start thinking about each recipe as a short story plus actually reading the stories the chef-authors included. What Im most excited about is that my creative block has melted and Ive been writing work thats more alive than I have written in ages, edgier and fresher, with immediacy I havent reached in years. I also scrutinized my unhealthy relationship to reading. For so long, Ive been chasing numbers with my reading, pushing myself to read as much as I can, at whatever cost, even if I was burned out, and even if I was reading some uninspiring books that I couldnt break away from and risk losing my momentum. I was reading in name only, not grappling with the beauty of a book, not lost in the intoxicating wonder of literature. My eyes were grazing the letters, but I wasnt really stacking them together to see a work of art that someone built out of that alphabet. Lately, Im happy to say Ive been finishing books more often, enjoying my trips to the library, and feeling more connected to the book world and community of readers who foster a passion for pages. And I credit my slump. This experience has taught me just how interconnected art is to other art, and how nurturing your love for other arts can only help you engage with literature more.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale by Margaret Atwood is set in a future time period where the United States is under the control of the Gileadean regime. A terrorist attack leads to the collapse of Congress, the suspension of the Constitution, and the establishment of a theocratic totalitarian government. Men and women are given roles within society; they are Commanders, Eyes, Handmaids, and Marthas. In this novel, Atwood explores a prominent social issue, feminism. The suppression and power of women are examined through the setting and characterization of the novel to help understand the meaning of the novel as a whole. Through the setting of the novel, Atwood examines a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s role and contribution to society. Throughout history, oppressive regimesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition to the important roles that women play in the regime, this setting also portrays the will and intelligence of women. Offred seeks knowledge as she meets with the Commander; she longs for touch and intimacy as she risks everything to spend her nights with Nick. Moira strives to leave the confines of the regime as she continuously found ways to escape. Even as she is recaptured, she chooses to stay at JezebelÃ¢â¬â¢s to live. Although given death if no child is beared, Handmaids voluntarily Ã¢â¬Å"prayed for emptiness, so we would be worthy to be filled: with grace, with love, with self-denial, semen and babiesÃ¢â¬ (194). Despite their role to bear children and given death if they failed to do so, essentially, Handmaids have a choice in whether they accept that death or survive by finding ways to get pr egnant. These instances show that women are not merely simple creatures who are controlled by men because what they do is still a decision of their own. Nevertheless, all of the progress that women fought for is gone: their reproductive rights, economic rights, social rights. Women are not allowed to get abortions, and they are forced into bearing children for their Commanders. Women have no outside jobs; they merely complete chores for their household. They are given no social power; they are monitored for what they say and what they can do in public. Such strict confines ofShow MoreRelatedFeminism In The Handmaids Tale1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Republic of Gilead, a dystopian world with a patriarchal society, is displayed in AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s, The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale. More specifically, the novel takes place in what used to be considered the United States but is now being called the Republic of Gilead where freedoms and rights have been excluded, especially for women. The soc iety nurtures a Ã¢â¬Å"theocratic, patriarchal, nightmare world created by men, with the complicity of womenÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Margaret (Eleanor) AtwoodÃ¢â¬ ). The separation of the freedoms betweenRead MoreFeminism in The Handmaids Tale626 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesChoice Novel Paper: Feminism in The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s news we see many disruptions and inconsistencies in society, and, according to Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, humankind might be headed in that direction. The deterioration of society is a concept often explored biologically in novels, but less common, is the effect on everyday social constructs such as the position of women as a item that can be distributed and traded-in for a Ã¢â¬ËbetterÃ¢â¬â¢ product. The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale elaborates theRead More Feminism In The Handmaids Tale Essay1588 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFeminism In The Handmaids Tale Ã Ã Ã Ã Feminism as we know it began in the mid 1960s as the Womens Liberation Movement. Among its chief tenants is the idea of womens empowerment, the idea that women are capable of doing and should be allowed to do anything men can do. Feminists believe that neither sex is naturally superior. They stand behind the idea that women are inherently just as strong and intelligent as the so-called stronger sex. Many writers have taken up the cause of feminismRead MoreSummary Of Feminism In The Handmaids Tale724 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMerriam Webster defines feminism is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexesÃ¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster). Still, today in America, the thought of gender equality idealistic because the system is internally misogynistic. Margaret Atwood tackles internalized misogyny because of hierarchal patriarchy in her dystopia, Gilead. She creates a world where on the surface women are equal while underlying critici zing religious conservative politics. Writer, Fiona Tolan analyzesRead MoreThe Significance Of Feminism In The Handmaids Tale991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgranted. This is evident through Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, a work of speculative fiction that depicts a dystopian future world called Gilead. In this novel, Atwood does a great job of highlighting the significance of feminism or specifically the lack thereof and warns the reader of the consequences that comes along with not recognising the effects on women in a patriarchal society. During the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, when The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale was written, women in North America had the right to voteRead MoreThe Handmaids Tale Feminism Essay1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMargaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s 1985 novel, The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, is undoubtedly a staple piece when considering feminism in literature. While most works might take a firm stand on one side or the other when considering feminism, The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale approaches the subject differently; instead of establishing an ironclad position either supporting or condemning feminist ideals, AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s novel showcases both ends of a spectrum concerning the advantages and disadvantages of such a movement in a democratic-turned-totalitarianRead MoreThoughts on Feminism and Dystopia in the HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale Essay1044 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX ENGL 252-01 28 November 2012 Thoughts on Feminism and Dystopia in The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale The Annotated Bibliography Dopp, Jamie. Subject-Position as Victim-Position in The Handmaids Tale. Studies in Canadian Literature / Ãâ°tudes en littÃ ©rature canadienne [Online], 19.1 (1994): n. page. Web. 27 Nov. 2012 Dopp believes that Dopp believes that the goal of The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale is to work against the oppression of women, While he feels that is actually does theRead MoreFeminism in Top Girls and The Handmaids Tale Essay1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBoth Top Girls and The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale relate to contemporary political issues and feminism. Top Girls was written by Caryl Churchill, a political feminist playwright, as a response to ThatcherÃ¢â¬â¢s election as a first female British Prime Minister. Churchill was a British social feminist in opposition to Thatcherism. Top Girls was regarded as a unique play about the challenges working women face in the contemporary business world and society at large. Churchill once wrote: Ã¢â¬ËPlaywrights donÃ¢â¬â¢t give answersRead MoreEssay on Feminism in Margaret Atwoods The Handmaids Tale1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFeminism in Margaret Atwoods The Handmaids Tale In The Handmaids Tale, Margaret Atwood explores the role that women play in society and the consequences of a countryÃ s value system. She reveals that values held in the United States are a threat to the livelihood and status of women. As one critic writes, Ã¢â¬Å"the author has concluded that present social trends are dangerous to individual welfareÃ¢â¬ (Prescott 151).Ã The novel is set in the near future in Gilead, formerly the U.S., at a time whenRead MoreFeminism Lost in Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s A HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale Essay1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s A HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale, the human spirit has evolved to such a point that it cannot be subdued by complacency. Atwood shows Gilead as an extremist state with strong religious connotations. We see the outcome of the reversal of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and a totalitarian government which is based on reproduction. Not only is the government oppressive, but we see the female roles support and enable the oppression of other female characters. Ã¢â¬Å"This is an open ended text,Ã¢â¬ ¦conscious of the possibilities
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Give Life a Chance A mother s choice to kill, is not part of the Good Lord s will. Imagine being killed because someone didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want you. Imagine not having any say in whether or not you wanted to have a life. Well fetuses don t have a choice. How many babies do you think have been killed that wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve made a dramatic impact on society? The answer is thousands. Their entire future is destroyed. Without abortion many valuable lives could be saved. Norma McCovery, also known as Jane Roe, is the woman behind the Roe vs Wade case. This act was passed in 1973, and it gives women the right to have an abortion. When Norma was 25 she wished to get an abortion, but couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t so she took it to court. Ironically Norma never got an abortion, instead she put her child up for adoption. According to NormaÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Abortion , to me, means going back to the condition of not being pregnantÃ¢â¬ ( qtd. In EndRoe). Norma did not completely understand that abortion was more than just not being pregnant anymore, it was more than that. Abortion is taking an innocent life away. Fast forward 40 years and she is now a pro-life activist and is now working hard trying to demolish the bill she passed. Even the woman that were behind the movement to authorize abortion have understood how detrimental abortion can be, especially to mothers. The most obvious reason why abortion is immoral is because it is the intentional killing of a human being. Although studies havenÃ¢â¬â¢t totally proven whether fetusesShow MoreRelatedThe Picture Of Dorian Gray1576 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestransformation, Oscar Wilde s novel is suggesting that the hedonistic lifestyle, a lifestyle where gaining pleasure is the main goal of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, may seem like it is an exciting and wonderful way to live, however a person will slowly be corrupted if they are not careful in the way they carry out their lifestyle. Their life must be taken into their own hands and they must choose the people to be around and what they will do with their time to stay pure and good. Throughout Wilde s novel, the protagonistRead MoreThe Picture Of Dorian Gray1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestransformation, Oscar Wilde s novel is suggesting that the hedonistic life style, a life style where gaining pleasure is the main goal, may seem like it is a fun and wonderful w ay to live, however a person will slowly be corrupted if they live in that way . One has to take life into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own hands and choose the people to be around and what one will do with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s time to stay pure and good. Throughout Wilde s novel, the protagonist, Dorian Gray, is influenced by his companion, Lord Henry, to lead a hedonisticRead MoreViews Of Predestination And The Christian Faith1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesViews of Predestination: What to Believe This Semester has been great for me with being in Exploring the Christian Faith. It has been a good reminder and has also helped me learn more about my wonderful Lord. We discussed the idea of Predestination, but I will be exploring it even more. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s first start off with a definition of predestination. As a doctrine in Christian theology, the divine foreordaining of all that will happen, especially with regard to the salvation of some and not others. ItRead MoreSummary Of The Lord Is Salvation 1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHis name was Hoshe a (Ã¢â¬Å"SalvationÃ¢â¬ ) the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses went and renamed him Yehoshu a (Ã¢â¬Å"The Lord is SalvationÃ¢â¬ ) or as in North American cultures traditionally known as Joshua (Numbers 13:16, NRSV). Joshua is a great leader from the bible he really shows how being faithful to God will end in complete success for you. I think it important to note, that just because he is a man in the bible and known as a great leader, Joshua was only human he let doubt settle in atRead MoreGod And The Potter Of Our Lives973 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespeople use this phrase today in society, but do they really give their faithfulness to God? A time will come when everyone must answer to God for their choices and actions. Our nation today is resembling the nation of Judah increasingly each day. God is known as the Divine Potter of our lives, and He has a plan in store for us. God sent His son to wash away our sins for us, but not everyone gives thanks to the Lord for His goodness. Yet you, Lord, are our Father. We are the clay, you are the potter; weRead MoreNot All Women Are For Children862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageseven though everyone that knew her thought she was a great mother. Nevertheless, when her children were present, she always felt the center of her heart go hard. (Kennedy Gioia 2013, 235). Tessie Hutchinson, on the other hand seemed to be a very good mother, and was even late for the drawing of the lottery. Her lateness was explained by herself to Mr. Summers by stating, Wouldn t have me leave m dishes in the sink, now would you, Joe? (Kennedy Gioia 2013, 252). Tessie was so caught up inRead MoreMacbeth and Picture of Dorian Gray Essay1821 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfor the painting through an indirect Faustian Bargain. Quote: Yes, there is nothing in the whole world I would not give! I would give my soul for that! Social Values/Context: Aestheticism was exposed to Dorian Gray by Lord Henry who was an aesthetic himself, which ultimately leads to the Faustian Bargain. Quote: Oh, she is better than good Ã¢â¬â she is beautiful, murmured Lord Henry, sipping a glass of vermouth and orange-bitters. Dorian says she is beautiful, and he is not often wrong aboutRead MoreThe Law Of Attraction And The Power Of Prayer Essay887 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfaithful but turns a deaf ear to the unworthy? Or is there something to the concept of the law of attraction that might allow people to better control their destiny with conscious effort? The answers to these questions, like many things we encounter in life, lies somewhere in the middle, allowing us to understand how all sides of the argument can be right simultaneously. There are many proponents of the power of prayer, and I am not here to claim prayer has no power to perform miracles. Certainly thereRead More The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde760 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"there is no such thing as a good influence...because to influence a person is to give him ones own soulÃ¢â¬ ¦he becomes an echo of someone elses music, an actor of a part that has not been written for himÃ¢â¬ (Wilde 18). Ã¢â¬Å"In The Picture of Dorian GrayÃ¢â¬ , DorianÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait alters as Dorian himself alters his personality which exemplifies more of an influential transformation compared to JekyllÃ¢â¬â¢s addiction to becoming Hyde in Ã¢â¬Å"The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. HydeÃ¢â¬ . Lord Henry, in The Picture of DorianRead MoreThe Divine Command Theory : A Man For All Seasons1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescommands must be good, and anything that he denounces must be evil. According to DCT, a person is not moral without believing in God (Pojman 188 -9). The DCT can be applied to Sir Thomas MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning and actions in his life. In Robert BoltÃ¢â¬â¢s play, A Man for All Seasons, Sir Thomas More is viewed as a saint or a person who is morally good. MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict comes from his refusal to go against his morals and self that were connected to God and the Catholic Church. He is willing to give up his family
Cultural diversity is all around us. Each culture identifies with unique characters. And while much of behavior may be thought to be innate, there are also external factors that can impact an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. We will write a custom essay sample on Western Culture or any similar topic only for you Order Now What is thought to be culturally accepted behavior or norms in one area of the country may be offensive and unacceptable in others. There are many examples of this practice. For instance, the legal drinking age in the United States is 21, while in Austria; an individual who is 16 may consume Ã¢â¬ËlightÃ¢â¬â¢ alcohol such as beer, wine or champagne. The Ã¢â¬Å"OKÃ¢â¬ symbol while used in the Western culture as Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m okÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"are you OK? is found to be very offensive in Turkey and Venezuela where there it references a symbol of homosexuality. Since China accounts for over one-fifth of the 1. 73 billion people around the world that take to the web, American-based Google, wanted to embark on this global domination but missed important cultural sensitivities and did not dominate this market as hoped. Cultures adapt to meet specific sets of circumstances, such as climate, level of technology, population, and geography (Schaefer, 2009, p. 69). For those that visit other countries may find their food and or people vastly different from what they are used too. Someone from the United States may be stunned to learn in certain areas of China dog meat is the specialty, a woman from strict Islamic culture will find offense to the provocative dress of the United States and while we Westerners think cattle are to be used for food might look down on IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Hindu religion and culture, which views the cow as sacred (Schaeffer, 2009). The culture in India is vastly different than that of our Western society; yet we still see a subculture created by those who job requires that they serve customers in the United States. These individuals have adapted to their circumstances and have a somewhat different lifestyle than others as it relates to their job. Not only must these employees be fluent in English; they are also expected to adopt Western values and work habits. They also get U. S. holidays such as Thanksgiving and Labor Day (Schaeffer, 2009). In return they receive perks such as Western-style dinners, dances, and coveted consumer goods (Schaeffer, 2009, p. 69). But because of the negative backlash from more traditional Indians these individuals have created this network of subculture to counteract what they experience. It is important for any company seeking to build and grow abroad to research the culture of where they wish to go; KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s had to find out the hard way. India seems deceptively comfortable or easy. It can also create a feeling that the market is easy to assess, as well as easily conquerable by transplanting business techniques and products that work elsewhere in the world (Prasso, 2008). While most enjoy progress and change, that is not necessarily the case in India as many American companies have discovered. As Manvinder Singh Banga states, Ã¢â¬Å"they overestimate the marketÃ¢â¬ (Prasso, 2008). Since Americans love their cold cereal for breakfast so much Kellogg decided they should launch their cereal in the Indian market. But their product did not take the Indian market as theyÃ¢â¬â¢d hoped and as Bhagirat B MerchantÃ¢â¬â¢s optimism suggested a lot of Indians found the idea of cold cereal for breakfast rather odd as the most common way to start the day in India was with a bowl of hot vegetables (www. brandfailures. com). When MTV India was launched, the aim was to bring Western rock, rap and pop to the sub-continent. Now, however, the music policy has shifted to accommodate Indian genres such as bhangra (www. randfailures. com). When Whirlpool launched its refrigerators on the Indian market, it found the market unwilling to buy larger sizes than the standard 165 litres. Coca-Cola was not a huge success either. Most Indians initially thought that the new entry to the market wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t fizzy enough additionally to them, the bottles were too big, prices were too high and the brand was too American (Prasso, 2008). We can also look at the failure of Google in China and Japan. So why did Google fail in China? For a couple different reasons as a matter of fact. First and foremost they did not research their new market nor did they consider local competition. What we can fault the tech giant for, is the fact that it arrogantly took years to find out even the most basic facts about its local competition, such as Baidu and Tencent Holdings. They also did not realize and ignored free music downloads Ã¢â¬â an element that just happens to make Baidu extremely popular. Google has not has much luck in the Japanese marker either. A major reason, analysts say, for GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle is Yahoo JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural history and local identity Ã¢â¬â a problem Google has yet to overcome (Deltorio, 2010). Google is still seen as an American company which is a detriment compared to Yahoo JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s familiarity with the country. Yahoo Japan is a Japanese company, and most of their employees are Japanese people who fluently understand how the Japanese mind-set and business work (Deltorio, 2010). American companies cannot fully understand the culture Unless Western companies wish to fail in the manner Wal-Mart did, they should do their research on the market, the culture and what people need. In doing so, this will enable them to be informed and understand what will work in their new market and what will most likely not. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t underestimate local competitors. Ã¢â¬ËThe trick is not to be too big. Ã¢â¬â¢ Do your homework. Why did KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s cereals have a tough ride in India? Ã¢â¬ËIt was just clumsy cultural homework,Ã¢â¬â¢ donÃ¢â¬â¢t try and make consumers strangers to their culture (www. brandfailures. com). Local competitors already know what motivates their customers and are sensitive to their culture because they too are a part of that culture. If companies will practice strategies that provide them with insights to their desired culture they may just make it; only time will tell. How to cite Western Culture, Essay examples Western Culture Free Essays string(228) " be quick to say that the effect of Western culture is minimal in different regions of the world, one must recognize that the historical context of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s situation is more immediate in physical presence than US media\." The Impact of Western Culture on Eating Disorders and Poor Body Image in Hispanic Americans While obesity stands as one of the leading causes of death in the United States, with the much of Latino community at risk of the disease, another potential health problem stemming from the association of food is the concept of body image, as well as its correlation to eating disorders. And while it is duly noted that many of the studies conducted have focused on the female Caucasian population, there has been an increase in the studying of the effects of Western culture on other ethnicities and other regions of the world, including Latin America, in recent years. What has resulted is the emergence of various postulations regarding body image and eating disorders Ã¢â¬â that both body image and eating disorders have a trans-cultural and Ã¢â¬âsocial presence in society. We will write a custom essay sample on Western Culture or any similar topic only for you Order Now In closely examining the studies conducted, one can observe the qualities on which Latin Americans judge physical appearances, the degree of internalization and awareness of the thinness ideal, the conflict between cultures, the sentiments associated with eating disorders, as well as possible prevention. The strong connection between body image disturbance and eating disorders is often misconstrued. Negative opinions of body image are not always indicative of an eating disorder (Fox), but rather, are one of the key factors that may contribute to the development of one. Moreover, the definitions of body image and related terms are often confused or misunderstood; in which case it is better to brief these terms before beginning the analysis of such in the Latin and Hispanic American populations. I. Defining Terms Body image is a relatively new concept in psychology, conceived and furthered in the 1920s by Austrian psychiatrist Paul Schilder. His interest in exploring the concept of body image as a reflection of social attitudes and interactions led to the formulation of a more concrete definition by Kevin Thompson and colleagues in 1999. The criterion in qualifying body image consists of sixteen dimensions, including weight satisfaction, appearance and evaluation, and body esteem. This complex view on body image, though, can be simplified to: Ã¢â¬Å"a personÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions, thoughts and feelings about his or her body. Ã¢â¬ (Grogan 3) With this definition of body image, one can better understand, as well as distinguish, its association with eating disorders. And thus, it can be said that an eating disorder is the manifestation of extremely poor self-reflection of his or her body. Given that it is fair to say that cases of diagnosed eating disorders Ã¢â¬â anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified Ã¢â¬â are extreme manifestations of negative body image, one could better tie the concept of such extreme expressions with them being predictors of an eating disorder (i. e. behaviors that are symptomatic of a growing problem); extreme dieting or exercising, binge eating, purging, excessive laxative use, or cessation of eating. As of 2008, 1% of the US female population suffers from anorexia nervosa, 2% from bulimia nervosa, and 3% from binge eating disorder. In addition to the aforementioned, approximately 16% of adolescent girls find themselves engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors, and about 25% report high levels of body dissatisfaction (Rodriguez 618). Defining the attributes of Western culture is key before allowing for a comparison to it. The ideal body for women is slim, yet full breasted. Muscle tone has become important in recent years; however, visible muscles are not considered gender appropriate and are therefore seen as too masculine (Grogan 41). By not confirming to ideals, there are negative attributes associated with such behavior. For instance, to be overweight is to be seen as being lazy and having a lack of willpower. This Ã¢â¬Å"lack of willpowerÃ¢â¬ relates to the lack of exercise and constant diet breaking in Sarah GroganÃ¢â¬â¢s gathered data. II. Evaluation of Body Image from a Latin American Point of View Prior to delving into the study of how the ideal body is seen today between socioeconomic statuses in Latin America, one should acknowledge that the 1980s Latin American viewpoint was that a larger body size was equivalent to greater wealth and health (Grogan 31). Such a perception has changed, however, but how much so is a question, which will be examined in the US and Latin American context. Erynn Masi de CasanovaÃ¢â¬â¢s 2004 study of the concepts of beauty and race in Ecuador seeks to determine the differences in the concepts of beauty not only between social classes, but also between cultures Ã¢â¬â that of Latin America in comparison to that of North America. Surveying two schools in northern Guayaquil, Colegio Amazonas (private, co-ed school located in the poor outlying neighborhood) and Colegio Santa Fe (private, single-sex school located in the upper-middle class neighborhood), Casanova was able to determine what was the ideal woman nd grasp the general idea of what each neighborhood thought of itself. Those that were described to have attended the school in the poorer neighborhood were said to have mostly identified themselves as cinnamon colored in terms of skin tone, belonging to the lowest rung of the socioeconomic ladder, and scoring lower (averaging 101 out of 165) than their Santa Fe counterparts (averaging 125 out of 165) on the Rosenberg self-esteem sc ale . On the other end of the spectrum of study, those that attended Colegio Santa Fe were of the upper-middle class, with access to television and Western culture. They described themselves as being lighter skinned and having more Caucasian features than their Amazonas counterparts. Sharing many of the answers in the free response component of the survey with a study done on Jamaican adolescents regarding attractiveness, Casanova noticed that Caucasian features, such as straight hair and light skin, were valued by those in Ecuador, and that the ideal body was not as thin as what Americans portray in Western media. The study offers insight into the fact that race and class are entangled in the Latin American perception of body image. And while one could be quick to say that the effect of Western culture is minimal in different regions of the world, one must recognize that the historical context of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s situation is more immediate in physical presence than US media. You read "Western Culture" in category "Papers" For instance, the history of colonialism brings about the concept that the fairer skinned are looked up to because of the Europeans who held power during the colonial era. The impact of Western media, one could say, is that it does in fact propose a thinner model; however, Latin America is still keen on holding onto its ideals by demanding a larger body type than what the US portrays in its television shows due to lack of a prominent presence in their society and cultural history. III. Awareness and Internalization of Western Body Image Values Moving away from the pure study of body image in the Latin American country comes the comparison between those that have been heavily subjected to Western culture and those that are only beginning to experience the pressure of meeting these expectations. Ethnicity is said to be a buffer by many researchers between the idealization of thinness and the personÃ¢â¬â¢s susceptibility to succumb to wanting to meet these ideals. The composition of this aspect of body dissatisfaction is based on the awareness of the importance that is placed on the body by Western culture and the internalization of these values. Observed in a study conducted by Rebecca Chamorro and Yvette Flores-Ortiz, the awareness of ideals is addressed and examined in first- and second-generation Mexican Americans. Such a study permits the understanding of the influence that Western culture imposes on those born and raised in America in comparison to those that immigrate and are supposedly having to integrate into the culture. The results demonstrate that second-generation Mexican Americans are far more acculturated, and have higher patterns of eating disorders. Those of first generation Mexican Americans, however, value the body differently and demonstrate such by upholding a heavier weight and having a less restrictive appetite. It is not to say, though, that the Mexican American population is as aware of the thinness ideal as other ethnicities in the US, whether or not they be of second-generation descent. Placing context into the discussion, other investigations and studies have demonstrated that Mexican American persons are equal to their Euro-American counterparts in terms of body disturbance pathology. Therefore, to say that the second generation Mexican American population is overwhelmed by the thin ideal is unjust; but it is fair to say, however, that being brought up alongside Western culture, second generation Mexican Americans are more inclined to take notice and become aware of what the social expectations are regarding appearance. With awareness as the primary component to understanding body dissatisfaction, internalization of the values imposed by society is the secondary component. One of the most compelling arguments for such a case of internalization are studies in which youth and children are asked about the ideal body. The key in determining whether or not internalization has succeeded can be seen when the children respond similarly to their older counterparts and voice their preference for the light-skinned, blonde, and thin woman. More specifically, in a recent study, a group of third grade girls were asked about their concerns of being overweight and possibilities of body dissatisfaction with themselves; Hispanic American girls expressed a similar amount of concern as did Caucasian girls. (Perrin et al. 5) The second-generation is far more aware of the importance of being thin than their parents. In addition, these children interact with their peers and the peersÃ¢â¬â¢ parents (who perhaps may be Caucasian, which would provide greater influence) who have already internalized these values. As a result, there is a bleed-off and transfer in values of the ideal body. Stimulating awareness in all environments allows for second-generation children to catch up in terms of the aspects of body dissatisfaction, in spite of the fact that the home may not be as stimulating as that of a Caucasian child. IV. Conflicts between Latin American and US Cultures With the belief that belonging to a non-Caucasian ethnic group provides a protective barrier against negative body image and the onset of eating disorders, one should review the current statistics. The Hispanic American population is one of the fastest growing minority groups in the US (Barry and Grilo 336). The perception that belonging to a particular ethnic group serves as a barrier of entry for new ideals is one that should be reevaluated to ensure its validity in the 21st century. The latest research refutes the idea of the protective barrier for Hispanic American women, and instead, asserts that Hispanic American women experience rates of eating pathology and body disturbance equal to or similar to those of Caucasian women (Warren et Al. 65). And while the aforementioned statement may seem to contradict what has already been said about ethnicity, it must be noted that the buffer of ethnicity serves as the first barrier against the idealization of thinness in which there is resistance against awareness and internalization of different ideals. Ethnicity again plays a role in the overall sense of negative body image (but not in the attempts to meet ideals) and the onset of e ating disorders. While one could argue that ethnicity is already serving as a buffer, and therefore could not serve as resistance to a global picture, one would then have to question ethnicity. Given that ethnicity is not a tangible trait, in which it can be exchanged or sold, one must recognize that ethnicity is static, and can therefore offer resistance. In which case, ethnicity is a constant factor in the discussion of body image and eating disorders. With regards to a cultural context, many place an emphasis on the familismo concept in which the commitment to family relationships triumphs over the needs of the individual. The increase in globalization, though, leads to a set of mixed ideals, as well as interracial relationships and marriages. In an interview conducted by Leslie Goldman for her book Locker Room Diaries, she provides an stark contrast in the relationship of food between the Latin American and the Euro-American family. While food is a medium of celebration for the maternal (Latin American) side of the family, the interviewee notes that such viewpoints are opposing that of her paternal (Euro-American) side of the family who regards food with a disdainful eye. And instead of celebrating a voluptuous and curvy figure, like the maternal side of her family, the paternal members compare and critique one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s figures. In a sense, food is caught in the crossfire of cultures vying for a spot in a Hispanic AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s and mixed race childÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life. Furthering this position, one looks to the fact that the US sends out mixed messages in its advertising (Ã¢â¬Å"Speaking from the BodyÃ¢â¬ ) begging for both starvation and consumption of products, whether it be tangible products, like food, or intangible values, like thinness and self-esteem. As a result, a synergistic effect is created, in which the presence of the idealization of thin equivocating to the consumption of success enhances the magnitude to which the need for consumption is felt. The achieving of such is difficult and can manifest itself in the reverse as a rebellious act. Through eating, there is still a sense of consumption of society; however, there is no need to be thin, which refutes AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s ideals. With that said, the compounding of cultural messages may be the root of the growth in the recent prevalence of cases of binge eating disorder in Hispanic Americans. The rising trend is documented in data collected by Y. May Chao and colleagues between 1999 and 2005 (see figures 1, 2, and 3). In ChaoÃ¢â¬â¢s findings, purging and the use of diet products among Hispanic Americans, on average, surpass that of Caucasians. This increase in the use of weight loss products may serve as affirmation that there is indeed a clash between the Latin American and Western cultures. Also duly noted is the fact that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are proving to have heritable influences towards susceptibility towards the two illnesses (Le Grange et. Al 3), which may partially explain the fewer cases of anorexia nervosa experienced by Hispanic Americans, which may lead some to believe that the Latin American culture has not incurred this biological trait. In order to appease the first generation Latin American, which has been noted as being less aware of the US ideology of thinness, the second generation Latin American must present themselves as associating with food in a positive light, which serves as reference to the home countryÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. However, all other members of society perceive food in a negative light due to the battle to be thin. In order to appease the two cultures, medications and drugs to rid the body of what Latin American culture celebrates with provides ease in living between the two cultures. What has been said specifically about the affected is that many of those that engage in binge eating disorder in the Hispanic American community are of the lower education levels and socioeconomic statuses (Franko S31). Debra Franko reasons that Latin Americans with graduate degrees also have greater health literacy and are able to mediate the opposing cultures with adaptive coping skills (e. . exercise). However, one should take FrankoÃ¢â¬â¢s assertion with caution that post-secondary education does not guarantee eating disorder prevention, especially given that eating disorders have often been associated with the upper class who clearly are capable of affording university education. Therefore, in understanding the celebration of food and comfort in known culture, binge eating disorder can also be explained as a seeking for familiarity and as a tool for coping. Eating disorders, in general, often have an underlying issue in which control must be exerted over the body given that exercising control over the body is the fastest route to exhibiting power over something when caught in between the opposing ideals. V. Feelings and Sentiments While the statistics of binging amongst Hispanic Americans and the Caucasian population are similar, the extent to which the feelings associated with such behavior extend far greater with the Hispanic American population. In a study performed by Bennett and Dodge in 2007, two affective dimensions of binge eating disorder Ã¢â¬â feelings of embarrassment and loss of control Ã¢â¬â were examined amongst various ethnicities. As predicted, Hispanic Americans were more likely to report a fear of losing control (5. 6%) in comparison to Caucasians (2. 6%). However, both ethnicities delivered similar results with regards to feelings of embarrassment, which demonstrates a sense of internalization on the part of Hispanic Americans that such behavior is necessary to seek balance between their native and the hegemonic cultures. Also, the equal level of embarrassment recognizes that Hispanic Americans are not as preoccupied with the thoughts as to how Caucasians will react, but are rather, are more concerned with appeasing the old views of their parents and other first-generation family members. And thus, a signal of losing control would, to the first-generation, signal and demonstrate that there indeed is a conflict between ideals and a lack of loyalty to the native culture. Bringing the discussion back to self-esteem, the Ecuador study by Casanova is again recalled. Despite having access to Western culture via the importation of foreign media, the upper-middle class girls reported levels of higher self-esteem than the poorer one who even had little access to electricity. Interesting to note, though, that the Hispanic American female population exhibits a greater level of body shame and lower self-esteem levels than other ethnicities when faced with state self-objectification, such as when wearing a bathing suit (Body Beautiful 276). The low self-esteem in this case does not mean that Latin Americans have incredibly low self-esteem in relation to others. Rather, both situations have to be placed into context, and the levels of awareness and internalization of the Western ideal of the female body must be analyzed. The concept of Western culture is not internalized in the minds of the girls that live in Ecuador due to the fact that the awareness level is not as high as that of Hispanic Americans. In the US, though, Hispanic Americans are much more aware of the thinness ideal and to some extent, have certain values internalized in them due to day-to-day living in the hegemonic culture. Because they are the fastest growing minority, their successes and failures are becoming more amplified as opposed to diminished with size. Therefore, the greater level of body shame and lower self-esteem would seem natural when failing to meet the expectations of the ideal body type because of the fact that they are minority vying for greater social status in a predominantly Caucasian nation. VI. Prevention Offering a solution to prevent further cases of body image disturbance and the onset of eating disorders is a difficult task that has not been accomplished in Latin America, let alone the US. Although there is greater awareness of the need to change the view of how the body is perceived in Western culture, there is still disordered thinking in society. Based on the figural image study (Grogan 43), studies have shown that women tend to pick figures that are larger than themselves to represent their body, and then choose a smaller figure as their Ã¢â¬Å"goal. Ã¢â¬ Men, though, opt for women that are fuller than what women have selected as their goal figure. In which case, the problem does not lie in how men view women, but rather, in how women view one another. [pic] Collecting information on possible approaches for prevention of disordered thinking, one immediately notices an issue with Hispanic Americans and disordered eating. Rodriguez, who leads the study on prevention tactics, recognizes that Hispanic American adolescents and other ethnicities may face similar sociocultural pressures to be thin. More interesting, though, RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢s study finds that Hispanic Americans reported significantly greater pre-intervention symptoms than did other ethnicities, which can provide evidence for the idea that Hispanic Americans are vying incredibly hard for social status in the US. Aside from addressing this one particular issue regarding Hispanic Americans, Rodriguez also notes that the three ethnicities studied Ã¢â¬â Caucasian, Asian American, Hispanic American Ã¢â¬â all have similar positive results when subjecting the adolescents to prevention education, which entails dissonance intervention, healthy weight intervention, expressive writing control intervention, or assessment-only control condition. With these positive results, one could suggest workshops in middle schools given that is the period of time in which many eating disorders began to blossom in adolescent females. Other considerations of means of prevention include suggestions as to broadening the definition of eating disorders or detailing it in the DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). With the first public draft having been released in February of this year, there is still time for revisions to be made on entries regarding eating disorders. Statistics collected by Franko demonstrate that Hispanic Americans females are not as affected by anorexia nervosa, and are moderately affected by bulimia nervosa. What is said of this set of data is that there should be specific thresholds listed for particular cultures. The suggestion of such is in passing reference to the gathering of data by Cachelin and Striegel-Moore on Hispanic American women who have been noted as wanting to seek treatment due to weight concerns, but have been rarely diagnosed and treated for an eating disorder. Especially troubling is the idea that many of these instances of a developed eating disorder are dismissed as minor weight concerns, or rather, expected cultural byproducts of Western media. Taking the work of Cachelin and Striegel-Moore into consideration, one of the more important suggestions that Franko makes is to qualify and quantify distress. By making sure that distress is more culturally sensitive, the number of cases of eating disorders can be better determined and diagnosed. In addition to failing to receive proper treatment or being dismissed with Ã¢â¬Å"weight concerns,Ã¢â¬ it is also hypothesized that minority groups, including Hispanic Americans, are more likely to fall in to the category of eating disorder not otherwise specified because of one or more missing symptoms in either anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa criterion. Seemingly, it appears that the eating disorder not otherwise specified category is used to lump many cases together, which may also be the case for Hispanic Americans who may not fit into the Western defined eating disorders criteria. So following on the notion of being more culturally sensitive, several ratifications should be made to DSM V. In addition to what Franko calls for more information to be supplied on the definition of binge eating disorder, such as known cultural and ethnic factors, one should realize that adding more cultural specific details to the other eating disorders would prevent the misdiagnosis of them as eating disorders not otherwise specified. Conclusion Although many researchers seek to prove that the concept of body image and the rise of the prevalence of eating disorders is a trans-cultural and Ã¢â¬âsocial phemenona in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global society, there has to be acknowledgement that the degree to which those are affected vary. Sarah Grogan is quick to assert in Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children that the cultural variations in body shape preferences have radically changed. And while one can agree that there has been influence from Western culture, one should also note that it has been met with resistance, as one can see that the changes to cultural norms and behaviors overall are not as transformed in other countries as some would like people to believe. When examining Latin America, one can see that there is indeed a presence of the ideal body female body; however, it is modified to suit their culture, as opposed to completely conforming to US ideology. What is more influential in determining the ideal body type is the context in which it is placed. Should someone be immersed in US culture, then the expected result would be that assimilation would occur because of the fact that Western culture is the hegemonic culture in this particular region. When looking at other countries, though Ã¢â¬â Ecuador, for example Ã¢â¬â one realizes that the assimilation of culture in this case would incorporate historical elements because of EcuadorÃ¢â¬â¢s colonial past and shift in power from Europeans to Latin Americans. With regards to the prevalence of eating disorders in Hispanic Americans in the US, one is best to argue that they are attempts in exhibiting power in a conflict between cultures. The sentiments of loss of control and the degree to which one is aware and has internalized the US values of body image are demonstrative of assimilation in the hegemonic culture in which the person is residing. Therefore, one cannot say that the ideal body image is completely trans-cultural and Ã¢â¬âsocial; one would be better saying that the USÃ¢â¬â¢ view on the female body is influential in culture and society. In either case, the need for better acts toward prevention are necessary in terms of group and diagnostic support. [pic] FIGURE 1. Prevalence of dieting among adolescents by gender and ethnicity. (Chao et. al) [pic] FIGURE 2. Prevalence of diet product use among adolescents by gender and ethnicity (Chao et al) [pic] FIGURE 3. Prevalence of purging among adolescents by gender and ethnicity. (Chao et al) How to cite Western Culture, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Partial Birth Abortions Recently, congress has been going over the issue of partial birth abortions. A partial birth abortion is performed in the second and third trimesters. A partial birth abortion entails (1) inducing a breech delivery with forceps, (2) delivering the legs, arms, and torso only, (3) puncturing the back of the skull with scissors or a trochar, (4) inserting a suction curette into the skull, (5) suctioning the contents of the skull so as to collapse it, (6) completing the delivery. A partial breech delivery is not considered a birth at common law, where it is the passage of the head that is essential (Abortion Laws). Congress is currently in the process of passing the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2000. Both bills, H.R. 3660 and S. 1692, prohibit any physician from knowingly performing a partial-birth abortion, unless it is necessary to save the mothers life that is endangered by a physical disorder, illness, or injury. There are many people that oppose bans on safe abortion procedures. Although these bans are characterized as a single, late procedure, the bans are in fact not limited to any stage of pregnancy. They define the conduct to be banned so broadly as to reach an array of safe and common methods of abortion. Doctors have testified repeatedly and courts across the country have found that the bans can apply to all procedures used in the second trimester of pregnancy and even to some first trimester abortions. A court stated that the law has the effect of inhibiting the vast majority of abortion procedures and would significantly increase the health risks for a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus (ACLU). Some say that the government should stay out of the operating room. Legislators are not trained to make medical decisions. Therefore, politicians should not regulate medicine in a way that undermines the safety of patients. They should leave decisions about the best surgical techniques for abortion in the hands of doctors, patients, and their families. The bans use of non-medical terminology simply shows that politicians should not try to manage the practice of medicine (ACLU). The ACLU opposes bans on safe abortion procedures because they infringe on constitutional protections for reproductive freedom. Federal and state courts have found the bans are unconstitutional for their wide-reaching prohibition on the safest, most common methods of abortion; for the harm they impose on womens health by restricting physician discretion; and for their vagueness. The partial birth abortion bans threaten the right to choose abortion. The Supreme Court has held that the government may not prohibit a woman from making the ultimate decision, in accordance with her won conscience and moral imperatives, to have an abortion. Abortion restrictions are unconstitutional if they place an undue burden on a womans right to choose abortion. That is, if they would place a substantial obstacle in the path of women seeking abortions (ACLU). The partial birth abortion bans pose not only a substantial obstacle, but an absolute barrier to many abortions that are now safe and legal. After reviewing evidence that the language of the bans reach most methods of abortion, a court in Iowa held that the ban in that state was unconstitutional as a matter of law (ACLU). Partial birth abortion bans compromise womens health and drastically limit physicians discretion to choose the most medically appropriate abortion method for their patients. A federal court in Florida found that the bans would have an effect of denying women appropriate medical care. Similarly, a court in Montana found it would increase the amount of risk and pain to the woman (ACLU). Most of the proposed bans unconstitutionally fail to provide adequate life and health exceptions. Most partial birth abortion bans apply throughout pregnancy and yet contain no health exception whatsoever and a dangerously inadequate life exception. The government may never prohibit abortions that are necessary to preserve womens lives or health. A court in Illinois said the law would impermissibly require a women to remain pregnant eve in the face of serious health concerns (ACLU). Anti-choice legislators are also introducing bans on abortion procedures. Like the federal bill, most of the state measures are so vague and so broad that they cover a